Analysis of stage lamp design in Theatre
Analysis of stage lamp design in Theatre
Stage lamp design is a part of theatre architecture. Whether each lamp treatment can be integrated into theatre design to form an excellent whole is a common consideration of designers and architects.
Because of the variety of theatre forms, the lamp position will be changed according to theatre forms. As a stage lamp designer, it is necessary to achieve the excellent unity of form and content on the premise of meeting the stage function.
Actors are the main part of the performance. When the actors are in the main performance area, their faces should be well illuminated. The level elevation of 1.7m from the stage surface (the height of the eyes) is required as the lighting benchmark, which is called "effective illumination range".
According to the law of performance, the stage depth function is divided into the first 1/3 as the main performance area, the middle 1/3 as the secondary performance area, and the last 1/3 as the setting scenic area (background area). According to this law, stage lighting also has a basic division of labor for performance lighting: the off-stage lighting (face light, outside light) is mainly for the front and middle 1/3 of the stage space character lighting; the off-stage lighting (top light, side light) is mainly for the middle and back 1/3 of the stage space character lighting. This is only a general concept and a commonly used spatial relationship, and does not mean that any performance uses space in this way. But as a stage lamp design, we should pay attention to this factor.
Each stage lamp position design must be based on the stage size to ensure that a certain number of lighting installation space can be accommodated. The lamp has two kinds of space concepts: horizontal rotation and vertical rotation. The installation space design of the lamp must consider two kinds of rotation factors (including color changer, cover the door and other accessories).
Due to the variety of lamps and lanterns, and continuous development. The installation space of each lamp position can provide flexible and adjustable structure as far as possible. If fixed structure is adopted, the spacing between upper and lower poles of hanging lamp space should be no less than 90 cm, and the spacing between left and right should be no less than 70 cm. Seamless steel tubes with diameters of 50-60 mm should be uniformly used for hanging lamp poles. Lighting fixtures should be hooked on round poles with safety chains.
In addition to the architectural form or performance form, the installation of lamps and lanterns in each lamp position needs to be exposed, and generally strives to be concealed, so that the audience can not see the light source and operation as far as possible. The design of each lamp position can provide good working conditions, convenient access and safety facilities for lighting operators to install, overhaul and transport lighting equipment as far as possible. To do a good job of professional stage lamp design and choose suitable stage lamp equipment, we must first understand the stage lamp position, which is a very important link.
Basic knowledge of stage lighting
Common lamp position
Installed outside the stage curtain at the top of the auditorium. The light is projected from the front to the stage performance area, and the lamp position that illuminates the actor's face is the face light. It can achieve universal brightness, eliminate the "dead angle" easily produced in the picture, and adjust the light ratio, increase or reduce contrast, so as to show the role of balance and avoid underexposure. However, if this light is not used in conjunction with other light bits, it will lack brightness level and stereoscopic sense. Therefore, facial light can only be used as basic lighting and tone, and it does not play a major role on the stage, and can not become the main light and image-building tools.
Distribution law is generally divided into
Parallel projection or left-right cross projection
Side low level surface light (flip-flop light)
The stage light is usually set at the front of the second floor of the auditorium, which can increase the overall brightness of the front of the stage. The stage and the auditorium near the stage can be illuminated by floodlights. Stage lighting can provide auxiliary lighting for TV broadcasting and conference news reporting. Light is projected from both sides and low positions to the stage performance area frontally, which is a supplement to "face lighting".
A slap in the face (sidelight)
Light from the side to the stage performance area of the lamp position, respectively, known as the left and right ear slap. It is used to enhance the stereoscopic sense of characters and scenery, form the lighting effect of front and side, and produce the plastic effect. If the ratio of light to dark part is properly matched, abundant and powerful modelling effect can be obtained. People's perspective is the most sensitive to the change of side light. Side light is the main light of characters and scenes, and an important tool for modeling. In order to achieve vertical lighting, no less than two lights are transversely illuminated. Two or more rows of ears with the same light color are projected at the same time. The high position lamp is usually projected in the far light area, while the low position lamp is usually projected in the near light area. The ear-light can be installed in the ear-light room. The ear-light room should not obstruct the audience's access and not block the view of the sideseat audience. The horizontal angle formed by the horizontal projection of the light axis extending from the edge of the stage frame to the performance area and the central axis of the stage should not be more than 45 degrees, so that the sideframe of the stage mouth can be seen by the sideseat audience without affecting the sound transmission of the stage loudspeaker.
Taikou Side Light (Column Light)
Column light is used to compensate for the shortcomings of facial and ear-slap. Choosing suitable lamps can also be used as close-range tracing. In addition, a line of effect lights is hidden at the entrance of the building to provide more flexible means of expression for the lighting effect in the stage. On both sides of the stage entrance curtain, lamps are installed on the "telescopic movable platform entrance", "vertical iron pipe" or "fixed iron frame". The stage entrance (upper film) is equipped with a light bridge, and the side film is equipped with a side light position (column light).
The arrangement and projection method of the lamps are basically the same as that of the ear-slap.
Bridge Side Light (Cage Light, Bridge Light)
The sidelights of overpasses are located on one level of overpasses on both sides of the stage, or on the whole side elevation from the elevation of one level of overpasses to the ground near the stage.